Identified gene interactions that contribute to heat tolerance of rice

Идентифицирано взаимодействие на гени, което допринася за толерантността на ориза към топлина

Called thermotolerance 3 or TT3, the genetic modulus is the physical location in the genetic material of the cell containing the TT3.1 and TT3.2 genes, which interact to improve rice thermotolerance. credit: science

Rice is one of the most important major crops on which more than half of the world’s population depends. But as temperatures rise and extreme weather events increase, rice becomes more vulnerable. Genetically modified strains can withstand some flooding, but few, if any, can survive the heat stress caused by the combination of high temperatures and drought. However, there may be more resilient crops on the horizon using a molecular map that describes the specific gene interactions that control how tolerant rice is to heat.

Posted today in sciencethe card may not lead to a pirate treasure, according to the study’s authors, but it lays the groundwork for something much more valuable to many more people: food security.

“During its life cycle, rice is easily affected by heat stress and is even more vulnerable to global warming,” said Corresponding Author Lynn Hongshuang, Professor, National Key Laboratory of Plant Molecular Genetics, Center for Excellence in Molecular Science. plants of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. , Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology. “Improving the thermal tolerance of rice plays a key role in maintaining and increasing the yield of rice crops at high temperatures, providing food for the world’s population.

The thermal tolerance of rice is a quantitative trait that results from how much genes interact as well as contribute from the environment. According to Lin, plants have many mechanisms designed specifically to protect against heat, but how cells sense high temperatures and transmit this information internally remains elusive.

In a series of experiments with African and Asian varieties of rice, the researchers destroyed various genes and studied how this affects the genetic composition and physical expression of the resulting plants.

Идентифицирано взаимодействие на гени, което допринася за толерантността на ориза към топлина

Phenotypes of mature plants and total plant grains in NIL-TT3, WYJ, overexpression-TT3.1CG14 (OE-TT3.1CG14) and tt3.2 mutant plants after 30 days of high temperature treatment (38 ° and 34 ° C, day and night ) at the title stage. Scale strips, 5 cm credit: science

“We found that a genetic module in rice connects heat signals from the cell plasma membrane to its internal chloroplasts to protect them from heat stress damage and increase grain yield under heat stress, “Lin said.

Called thermotolerance 3 or TT3, the genetic modulus is physical location in the genetic material of the cell containing the TT3.1 and TT3.2 genes, which interact to increase the thermotolerance of rice. Part of TT3.1 appears to serve as a thermal sensor as it moves away from the plasma membrane to the cell’s transport path, where it marks its partner, TT3.2, to be degraded and removed from the cell. TT3.2 is involved in the threat to chloroplasts, and the cell can better protect itself from heat stress when the abundance of TT3.2 is reduced in chloroplasts, according to Lynn.

In the analysis of plants, the researchers found that TT3, whether naturally occurring or genetically modified, improves heat tolerance and reduces yield loss caused by heat stress.

“After seven years of effort, we have successfully mapped and cloned a recently identified thermotolerance rice module involving two genes and discovered a new thermotolerance mechanism in plants,” Lin said. “This study shows that this genetic interaction can improve the thermotolerance of rice, significantly reduce yield loss caused by heat stress and maintain a stable yield of rice. rice. “

Researchers plan to continue to identify thermotolerance genes and develop them genetic resources to be integrated into the cultivation of crops.

“The genes we’ve already identified are preserved in other major crops, such as corn and wheat,” Lin said. “They are valuable resources for high breeding voltage-tolerant crops to cope food security worries caused by Global Warming. ”

Use of CRISPR to exclude genes in maize and rice to improve yield

More info:
Hai Zhang et al, Genetic module in one locus in rice protects chloroplasts to increase thermotolerance, science (2022). DOI: 10.1126 / science.abo5721.

Quote: Identified gene interactions that contribute to rice’s heat tolerance (2022, 16 June), retrieved on 17 June 2022 from -rice-tolerance.html

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